Category Archives: education

Four Years Later, We Have A New Owasp Top 10

When the client does not take proper care of it, an audit of libraries and frameworks may be necessary. Three years have passed since the last edition of the OWASP TOP 10 report. A lot has changed – new frameworks, versions, solutions and vulnerabilities and much more made their way to this dynamically changing world.

Open Web Application Security Project® is a nonprofit foundation that works to improve the security of software. Deserialization is a process of converting a byte stream into code loaded into memory. The original byte stream is produced by a serialization process doing the opposite. If you are dealing with important and valuable data, keep a trail of actions which can be followed to audit the final state. For the best protection, use a combination of several approaches instead of sticking with only one of them. Keep in mind that CSRF hasn’t vanished, it’s just not as common as it used to be.

Server-Side Request Forgery is a vulnerability when an application makes a request to an unauthenticated, remote host and does not validate the request correctly. An attacker can exploit this vulnerability to internal port scan, DoS attack, and fetching the internal metadata of the application. The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controllable input before it is placed in output that is used as a web page that is served to other users.

OWASP Top 10 2017 Update Lessons

It’s important to note that this category tends to refer more to a lack of best practices that could hinder detection and response to an attack, rather than it being a web application vulnerability. We plan to calculate likelihood following the model we developed in 2017 to determine incidence rate instead of frequency to rate how likely a given app may contain at least one instance of a CWE. This means we aren’t looking for the frequency rate in an app, rather, we are looking for the number of applications that had one or more instances of a CWE. We can calculate the incidence rate based on the total number of applications tested in the dataset compared to how many applications each CWE was found in. The Percent Likelihood seen in the graph reflects how likely it is that a site will have a specific class of vulnerability. This is calculated based on the number of sites that have at least one open vulnerability in a given class compared to the total number of active sites under WhiteHat Sentinel service. The Open Web Application Security Project, or OWASP, is a non-profit initiative dedicated to improving the security of web applications.

Why Is Sensitive Data Exposure So Common?

This is not a complete defense as many applications require special characters, such as text areas or APIs for mobile applications. If you have a tailored web application and a dedicated team of developers, you need to make sure to have security requirements your developers can follow when designing and writing software.

OWASP Top 10 2017 Update Lessons

The list of Top 10 OWASP vulnerabilities – the most critical web application security risks – has been updated. A possible category to replace the proposed A10, while a little out of left field, would be “Insecure or Inadequate Backup and Recovery.” Too often, applications don’t implement sufficient backup or recovery mechanisms. Part of the CIA triad is Availability and it is a neglected aspect of security.

State Of Software Security V11

If you’re building software and you don’t understand all of this, Yep. As a developer, you should actually know all of these things just because you’re a software practitioner. You should be aware of the danger points even if you’re not familiar with how to fix it. I’m going to go and see someone about that and get the advice you need. It’s a success story because not only to work quickly, you have to use the shadow DOM, which is a React feature. If you don’t use a shadow DOM and you’re manipulating the DOM by yourself, not only does your app look terrible, it’s slow.

  • Attackers rely on an average of around 200 days for detection that is typically discovered externally to establish persistence and pivot to additional vulnerable systems.
  • Classes are still very abstract, typically independent of any specific language or technology.
  • The point is that all the OWASP categories could be found in security bulletins by searching for acronyms and abbreviations like XSS, XXE, SQL, RCE, etc.
  • I can imagine that some popular vulnerabilities might have been kept out of the ranking in the past by a couple of votes, even though they should have been included.
  • You may be given user rights on one system but admin rights on another.

The OWASP Top 10 for 2017 is based primarily on 11 large datasets from firms that specialize in application security, including 8 consulting companies and 3 product vendors. This data spans vulnerabilities gathered from hundreds of organizations and over 50,000 real-world applications and APIs. The Top 10 items are selected and prioritized according to this prevalence data, in combination with consensus estimates of exploitability, detectability, and impact. OWASP develops standards and provides guidance on development, testing, and tools. OWASP’s mission is to raise the visibility of software security, so that individuals and organizations worldwide can make informed decisions about true software security risks.

Most Important Web Application Pentesting Tools & Resources

Similarly, Sensitive Data Exposure rose from A6 to A3 – in today’s world of large-scale data breaches and regulations such as GDPR, sending and storing confidential information unprotected became an extremely critical issue. Note, however, that sensitive data exposure is a possible consequence of various vulnerabilities rather than a vulnerability itself. The Top Ten Project is the best-known publication of OWASP, enumerating the 10 most critical Web application security problems to be addressed. The list is updated every three years or so – the last list was published in 2013. A widespread inattentiveness to security issues became apparent in responses to an OWASP survey.

OWASP Top 10 2017 Update Lessons

Our technology has 8 patents granted/pending, and has no false alerts. Finally, this category also includes what was previously called “Insecure Deserialization” in the 2017 list. Failures that arise here are due to objects or data encoded or serialized into a structure that is visible to an attacker and which they can modify. Access control refers to the enforcement of restrictions on authenticated users to perform actions outside of their level of permission.

Apple, Facebook Doxxed Users

Security Misconfiguration, which now includes XML External Entities bugs, landed on the fifth position. This should still be performed where possible, but we must acknowledge that it’s becoming increasingly difficult as systems start to have more and more inputs. Allowing an authenticated user to access another user’s account details by entering the other user’s ID in the URL. Allowing any authenticated user to be able to access the administrative page of the application. Logging isn’t just important for identifying attacks in progress; it can assist with the forensic analysis after an attack has succeeded. If you’re not looking for attackers or suspicious activities, you’re not going to find them. Before data is stored or transmitted, the bits are often serialized so that they can be later restored to the data’s original structure.

  • In case this is not possible, it is suggested to use a checksum or a digital signature to prevent deserialization of data that was potentially modified by a malicious user.
  • OWASP states very clearly in their methodology that the Top 10 list is, by definition, only a subset of important security issues and organizations should be aware of additional security risks.
  • Even if a detected attack has failed, logging and monitoring provide invaluable tools for analyzing the source and vector of the attack and learning how security policies and controls can be hardened to prevent intrusions.
  • The intended audience of this document includes business owners to security engineers, developers, audit, program managers, law enforcement & legal council.
  • The OWASP community includes corporations, educational organizations, and individuals from around the world.
  • For an example, see Hacked Credit Card Numbers Are Still, Still Google-able.

Identify flaws within your system designs to improve yoursecurity posture. Years of experience have taught us that half of the software defects that create security problems are flaws in design. Simply testing software for security vulnerabilities is insufficient and leaves you vulnerable to attack. Imagine a website that allows an administrator to view the private messages of its members. From a privacy point of view, this should only happen under exceptional circumstances. However, nothing would prevent a rogue admin or a hacker that gained admin credentials to read every private message of any user. If there was no proper logging or monitoring in place, an attacker could snoop on users for an indefinite period of time.

When you log into a computer at the library, you hope that this won’t expose you to any unnecessary security threats. But IT support professionals who work for the library are not always on the ball, and other library computer users may not have the same high level of integrity as you. This vulnerability is so obvious that it might even be overlooked. How many times have you been told to keep your login information secure, to use strong passwords, and to completely log out when you’re done? Preventing bad guys from accessing confidential sites and services by using your ID and password is a no-brainer — but it still happens. This uses specific escape syntax to prevent the software command interpreter from recognizing special characters.

Xml External Entities Xxe

Software and systems have monitoring abilities so organizations can see logins, transactions, traffic, and more. By monitoring for suspicious activity, such as failed logins, organizations can potentially see and stop suspicious activity. XSS exploits have been reported for more than 20 years, and have impacted Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and many, many others. It’s showing no signs of waining, however, as both Adobe and WordPress patched XSS vulnerabilities as recently as November 2017. Attackers can change the behavior of an app, direct data to their own systems, or corrupt or overwrite existing data.

Restrictions on what authenticated users are allowed to do are often not properly enforced. Attackers can exploit these flaws to access unauthorized functionality and/or data, such as access other users’ accounts, view sensitive files, modify other users’ data, change access rights, etc. The version of the standard is updated approximately every three years and reflects current trends in web application security. We’ve also recently published a video,The Need for Deterministic Security.

  • The Open Web Application Security Project is a non-profit foundation dedicated to improving the security of software.
  • External entities can be used to disclose internal files using the file URI handler, internal file shares, internal port scanning, remote code execution, and denial of service attacks.
  • Specifically, functions related to authentication and session management, when implemented incorrectly, allow attackers to compromise passwords, keywords, and sessions.
  • Noname Security aims to resolve API vulnerabilities across 4 key pillars — Discover, Analyze, Remediate, and Test.

Injection of an invalid HTML img element making a requests to a bank’s API resource is an example of an attack vector used in a CSRF attack. Testing against web application threats must, as much as possible, be an automated process. It is beneficial to augment your CI/CD workflows with automated tests trying to find security holes. You can even utilize your existing unit testing system to develop security tests and run them periodically.

XSS is a form of injection where an attacker purposely inserts a string that will be interpreted by the victim’s browser. This additional text is actually treated as code by the computer — remember, the computer only follows commands — allowing the hacker to perform actions that may affect an unsuspecting user. Poorly configured TLS implementations might change secure web pages to insecure ones at some step of the data’s journey, leaving it open to attack. A home user might think it unnecessary to set up his wireless router with encryption access controls. Or a careless office computer user might even leave an important password scrawled on a piece of paper next to her PC. This is commonly a result of insecure default configurations, incomplete or ad hoc configurations, open cloud storage, misconfigured HTTP headers, and verbose error messages containing sensitive information. Not only must all operating systems, frameworks, libraries, and applications be securely configured, but they must be patched and upgraded in a timely fashion.

The OWASP Top 10 is a list of the 10 most common web application security risks. By writing code and performing robust testing with these risks in mind, developers can create secure applications that keep their users’ confidential data safe from attackers. Broken authentication is a vulnerability that allows an attacker to use manual or automated methods to try to gain control of any account they want on the system. In the worst conditions, they could also gain complete control over the system. This vulnerability is also more dangerous because websites with broken authentication vulnerabilities are very common on the Internet. Broken authentication typically occurs when applications improperly perform session management functions, allowing attackers to crack passwords, security keys, or session tokens.

You can deactivate the checks you don’t need from the Security Checks lists on the right. Since you aren’t making any additional requests, you can use it in conjunction with any other policy, without impacting performance. Whenever possible, use less complex data formats such as JSON, and avoiding serialization of sensitive data. In general sanitization is a protection from this class of attacks, but a better one is a safe API.

Injection vulnerabilities generally occur whenever untrusted data, such as unsanitized user inputs, is concatenated with instructions before they are parsed. Consider the developer of a router that allows users to ping remote servers for debugging purposes, for example. The easiest way to do this is to execute the operating system’s built-in ping OWASP Top 10 2017 Update Lessons command with a hostname supplied by the the user, potentially opening the way for an injection attack. At number 8 on the OWASP Top 10 list, insecure deserialization would allow an attacker to remotely execute code within a vulnerable application. From there, an attacker can pivot throughout the internal network and further escalate attacks.

Preventing SQL injections requires keeping data separate from commands and queries. Preventing code injection vulnerabilities really depends on the technology you are using on your website. For example, if you use WordPress, you could minimize code injection vulnerabilities by keeping it to a minimum of plugin and themes installed. Our suite of security products include a vulnerability scanner, firewall, malware scanner and pentests to protect your site from the evil forces on the internet, even when you sleep. His first introduction to the world of Cyber Security was through bug bounty programs. He quickly made a name for himself as a bug hunter and now actively participates in bug bounty programs.

Poverty and Education: A Vicious Circle of Cause and Effect

 Today while working with the students, I was just thinking whether the education would be able to remove the miseries and poverty of their families. Immediately a question arose in my mind, what if some of the children do not complete their education or are compelled to leave in between due to any reasons? Then I started thinking and thinking and after some time, appeared to reach some conclusion and promised myself to assist these less affluent children to complete their education so that they could break this vicious circle.


Poverty as a cause leads to illiteracy and also illiteracy generates a property in its turn. As such it is apt to say – poverty is not only a cause to illiteracy but also poverty is an effect of illiteracy.  


It is a vicious circle that goes hand in hand. We can understand this problem in this way.  Circumstances of poverty in a family affect education. It is just possible that a student, due to poverty will not get higher education as compared with the children of more well off people in the society and his lower education would compel him to do menial jobs which would be less rewarding leaving him and his family again in poverty. This example shows that though due to poverty a student could not get higher education. As such poverty is the cause of illiteracy. Also due to his lower education, he could not become able to earn a lot for himself and his family which has left the family in poverty.  As such while imparting education it is also an important to factor that the children receive a complete education in the field which they opt for so that in future this vicious circle could be broken.  


It appears to be true within the context of the entire world that unless and until these children do not receive complete education, they would not be able to break this vicious circle and let us join our hands to assist these innocent children and make this beautiful planet poverty and illiteracy free.


Anubhuti Jain

Ek Koshish one attempt



Children from Poor and Inhumane Background Going School for the First Time

Children from Poor and Inhumane Background Going School for First Time
 Dharam Veer
Mangal Kumar
Pradeep Kumar
Yash Kumar
Ek Koshish feels immense pleasure to write this blog that our constant efforts to make the children coming from the very very poor and inhumane background of society, eligible to take admissions in an English Medium Modern School.
Ek Koshish has been providing coaching and training continuously to 23 children since long for making them capable of receiving proper education at public schools so that they become successful in their lives and be equally placed in the society and get rid of the curse of poverty and inhumane livings. Out of these 23 children, seven children shown in the photos above have qualified for admissions in Dr. Karam Vir Public School, an English Medium Public School at Faridabad. Ek Koshish has fully sponsored their entire admissions and monthly tuition fees and other expenses to be incurred on their education (uniforms, bags, books and other stationery, etc) as their parents could not have afforded any of their expenses. Most of the parents are daily wage earners and seek work on a daily basis. They also belong to farfetched areas where life is too tough and harsh having always lack of even basic amenities and facilities and no education at all.
It was a matter of proud for the entire team of Ek Koshish to see the parents of children so happy on the occasion of admissions of their children. They were very excited to see their children going for the first time to any school. It was visible on their faces that they could believe to see that their children would be admitted in an English medium public school in which children of the rich class also take education. During the discussion with them, the parents of these children told that as far as their memory goes back, no one in their entire family had ever gone to any kind of school what to say of public school. All parents of these children are illiterate knowing no alphabet (except one i.e. father of Yash who attended primary school in a village up to 2nd standard in the village). The parents of these children have now started dreaming to make their children Engineer, Doctor, Government officer, etc. May God bless them to see their dreams turning out to be true!   
To see the ecstasy, joy and happiness and other mixed emotions of happiness (which is very difficult to express in words) on the innocent faces of these children, on the occasion of their admission, was really a great moment in our lives which one can really equate with ‘bliss’. 
The entire team of “Ek Koshish” is very very thankful to all who have contributed in this “one attempt” and further hope that the same co-operation shall be rendered to us for all such humane efforts dedicated to society. Ek Koshish is highly thankful to its volunteers especially Mrs. Sunita and Mrs. Daisy who have contributed a lot by putting their much-needed efforts to make these children capable of public schools. We are also thankful to Mrs. Sunita who has in addition to her other efforts, taken the responsibility of Kiran also. 
Ek Koshish One Attempt